Measuring Oxidative Stress using the Panel Carratelli
What is oxidative stress
Oxidative stress in a living organism is a chemical condition in which oxidative species overcome antioxidant systems due to an imbalance between the two parts. The oxidizing species, among which the free radicals stand out, perform important functions such as the elimination of pathogenic bacteria, the regulation of arterial pressure, and the transmission of signals. When free radicals are in excess, they can alter the normal functioning of vitals molecules, leading to cell and tissue damage. If this damage it is not promptly repaired, it will facilitate the appearance or accelerate the progression of very common diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, diabetes, certain types of cancer and other pathologies.
Furthermore, an increase in free radicals promotes premature aging of the organism. Among the causes of oxidative stress are environmental pollution, incorrect diet, inadequate exercise, chronic medication intake, untreated inflammatory states, smoking, and alcohol abuse.
Measuring oxidative stress
As oxidative stress does not exhibit specific clinical manifestation, it can be identified only if the clinician suspects its presence and suggests the patient go to a laboratory to run a blood test.
Depending on the clinical situation, the clinician can request one or more Panel Carratelli test(s). For a comprehensive oxidative balance evaluation, the d-ROMs Test will be needed for the evaluation of pro-oxidant status linked to one of the parameters related to the antioxidant potential (BAP Test, OXY-Adsorbent Test, -SHp Test and anti-ROMs Test).
A condition of oxidative stress will be indicated by an increase of d-ROMs values and/or a decrease of BAP Test or OXY-Adsorbent Test or -SHp Test or anti-ROMs Test values.
The results of these exams lead to an extremely accurate and reliable clinical diagnosis of oxidative stress, where the two opposite parameters (pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant) can be evaluated individually. This allows the real-time picture of the causes of oxidative stress, the increased production of free radicals or a reduced capacity of the antioxidant barrier. Antioxidant therapy monitoring can be based on solid fundamentals and not on a subjective idea.
While all tests of the Panel Carratelli can be used on standard photometers, some of them can be used on microplate readers or automatic analysers. As an alternative it's possible to run the assays with the dedicated FREE systems (FREE Carpe Diem and FREE DUO). As with all the products developed by Mauro Carratelli, the ease of use combined with the reliability of the system is the focus.
Who should measure oxidative stress
Panel Carratelli tests are useful as a prevention diagnostic test as they provide an indication on the general well-being of the organism. For this reason, everyone should undergo an oxidative stress evaluation, even if in good health condition, as oxidative stress does not give rise to specific clinical manifestations. The tests are especially recommended if a person is:
- exposed to pro-oxidant factors (e.g. unhealthy lifestyle, pollutants in the workplace, etc..)
- undergoing specific treatments (e.g. dialysis, bypass, organ transplantation, pill, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, etc.)
- suffering from chronic degenerative diseases (e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc..)
How to fight oxidative stress
The treatment of oxidative stress requires the identification of the causes and the determinative mechanisms. If there is an increased production of free radicals, it is necessary to identify the primary metabolic source responsible and keep it under control (e.g. to reduce inflammation, to improve tissue perfusion, to reduce the burden of toxins, etc...). On the other hand, if the antioxidant defences are reduced, we must restore them through the most appropriate method (antioxidant-rich diet, regular and not excessive physical exercise, reduction of smoking, alcohol and stress). If the antioxidant deficiency cannot be restored by nutritional interventions, it is possible that specific supplementation is required and subsequently can be prescribed by a health professional.
*Note: In North America, the Panel Carratelli kits are for Research Use Only.